How Does Thalassemia Affect Haemoglobin Levels in the Body?

Thalassemia, a genetic blood disorder, significantly impacts the body’s haemoglobin levels, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. Understanding how thalassemia alters haemoglobin levels is crucial for managing this condition effectively and improving patients’ quality of life.

Haemoglobin Level Impact Of Thalassemia in the Body

Let explore how thalassemia affects the haemoglobin level in an individual’s body:

  1. Genetic Mutation:
    Thalassemia results from genetic mutations that affect the production of haemoglobin. These mutations disrupt the normal synthesis of haemoglobin chains, leading to reduced haemoglobin levels in the bloodstream.
  2. Decreased Haemoglobin Production:
    Individuals with thalassemia experience a decrease in the production of normal haemoglobin, particularly either alpha or beta globin chains, depending on the type of thalassemia they have. This deficiency contributes to lower haemoglobin levels.
  3. Abnormal Haemoglobin Structure:
    In thalassemia, the abnormal haemoglobin structure formed due to genetic mutations is less efficient in carrying oxygen. This further compromises the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells, exacerbating anaemia.
  4. Increased Destruction of Red Blood Cells:
    The abnormal haemoglobin in thalassemia can cause red blood cells to become fragile and prone to premature destruction by the spleen. This ongoing destruction of red blood cells contributes to low haemoglobin levels in the body.
  5. Chronic Anaemia:
    Thalassemia leads to chronic anaemia due to the reduced haemoglobin levels, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. The severity of anaemia varies depending on the type and severity of thalassemia.

Ending Notes

Thalassemia profoundly affects haemoglobin levels in the body through genetic mutations, decreased haemoglobin production, abnormal haemoglobin structure, increased red blood cell destruction, and chronic anaemia. Early diagnosis and proper management are essential to mitigate the impact of this condition on individuals’ health and well-being.

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